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Suzy Menkes

Vogue International Editor Suzy Menkes is the best-known fashion journalist in the world. After 25 years commenting on fashion for the International Herald Tribune (rebranded recently as The International New York Times), Suzy Menkes now writes exclusively for Vogue online, covering fashion worldwide.

Chanel’s workshops see a new generation embracing artisan skills

During a visit to Métiers d’Art, I saw petites mains keeping forgotten crafts alive in the name of fashion

10 Декабря 2014

A feather-coated Chanel Haute Couture spring 2014 outfit by Maison Lemari © lejournalflou.com
A feather-coated Chanel Haute Couture spring 2014 outfit by Maison Lemari © lejournalflou.com

In the orgy of opulence that was the Eighties, I remember so clearly my visit to the workshop of François Lesage. In the small, dark rooms, where buttons and threads were lined up in empty jam-jars on a worn wooden shelf, the world’s most famous embroiderer would pull open drawers, grab a square of cloth and announce triumphantly, “Schiaparelli!”.
 
Then there was Andre Lemarié, who would treat the feathers all around his warren of rooms not as if we were backstage at the Folies Bergère, but as if each plume were a priceless jewel.
 
What a difference Chanel makes!

In the airy Pantin workrooms
In the airy Pantin workrooms
 
As I walked into the light and airy premises of the Métiers d’Art  in the Pantin district of outer Paris, the light flooded in from wide windows on to the talented workers who have been taken on since Chanel decided to preserve this French field of excellence by buying up the treasured specialist companies.

Embroidery by Lesage, made for the Elsa Schiaparelli Phoebus cape in 1938
Embroidery by Lesage, made for the Elsa Schiaparelli Phoebus cape in 1938
 
Almost the first thing I noticed in this complex, opened in January 2013, were the chic Chanel storage boxes that had replaced the shabby Lesage cardboard boxes. Then I was struck by the age of the petites mains — so young! And the fact that there were a lot of men, not just women, taking up these ancient crafts.

The young generation in Pantin are embracing artisanal techniques
The young generation in Pantin are embracing artisanal techniques
 
My visit started with a look at the beautiful work from the past, from Elsa Schiaparelli to a Valentino dress, rich with embroidered greenery, and from the spring and autumn couture.
 
But I was impatient to see this “factory” of human hands in motion.

Stylish new storage boxes
Stylish new storage boxes
 
No one understands the art of the needle and thread better than Hubert Barrère, artistic director of Maison Lesage. He is responsible for all the fashion world’s exceptional embroidery, carrying the torch for François Lesage, who died in December 2011.
 
Up close, it seems that these marvels of needlework can be applied to any fabric from finest silk to thickest velvet – including those Chanel  sneakers with their couture decoration.

Hubert Barrère, the artistic director of Maison Lesage infront of Chanel Haute Couture autumn 2014  sketches and Lesage samples © lejournalflou.com
Hubert Barrère, the artistic director of Maison Lesage infront of Chanel Haute Couture autumn 2014 sketches and Lesage samples © lejournalflou.com
 
I talked to M Barrère after the Salzburg show and he told me how much he and his team enjoyed the Métiers d’Art Chanel collection because there was “time to think”.
 
“This collection was a gift,” he said. “Karl just talked about Salzburg and then left us to do it. We researched Mozart, Von Hofmannsthal, the music festival — even the Grand Budapest Hotel film. We studied Empress Sissi, her history, the Romy Schneider movie and all that was romantic and poetic — but also joyous. We did all those little embroidered flowers and butterflies; we wanted it to be imperial — but also bucolic, historic and very romantic.”

The intricate embriodery of Lesage © lejournalflou.com
The intricate embriodery of Lesage © lejournalflou.com
 
The work was dense, intense – but never vulgar or showy. I could hardly believe that a chic bomber jacket worn by a model, who walked out casually with a small boy, had required 330 hours of needlework in gold braid yarn at the collar, with golden waves of metallic sequins at the hip and wrists.

Le Jardin d’Eden dress by Valentino Couture spring 2014
Le Jardin d’Eden dress by Valentino Couture spring 2014
 
No wonder Bruno Pavlovsky, president of fashion at Chanel, told me at the Salzburg show that Métiers d’Art was close to couture.

Lesage embroiderers at work © lejournalflou.com
Lesage embroiderers at work © lejournalflou.com
 
M Barrère surprised me by saying he was a fan of simplicity.
 
“People think that embroidery has to be very precious – but it can also be fresh and simple — and Karl is a fan of freshness,” said the king of embroidery, recalling the work his studio had done for the Métiers d’Art show in Edinburgh, making it relevant to Chanel. Last year’s Dallas show he called “classic Western”, while for the Paris-Bombay show they looked for the delicate and the metallic rather than the “land of the maharajas”.

A detail by Lemarié, on a Metiers d’Art dress from the Paris-Salzburg 2014-15 collection, included featherwork with little leather flowers, beads and appliqué © CHANEL
A detail by Lemarié, on a Metiers d’Art dress from the Paris-Salzburg 2014-15 collection, included featherwork with little leather flowers, beads and appliqué © CHANEL
 
I moved on to look at the Lemarié feathers — multiple plumes like a nest of birds of paradise, made into the same effects as I saw at the Chanel show in Salzburg.

Lesage Chanel trainers from Spring 2014 Couture © lejournalflou.com
Lesage Chanel trainers from Spring 2014 Couture © lejournalflou.com
 
I asked Nadine Dufat, managing director of Lemarié and Lognon, how many people worked on the feathers, and was amazed when she answered, “Sixty people and up to 110 before the collections”. But she reminded me that this is also a house of flowers — meaning that extraordinary visual effects are also created, as well as the plumes. Not to mention the production of 40,000 Chanel camellia flowers a year!

Featherwork by Maison Lemarié  for Chanel Haute Couture spring 2014 © lejournalflou.com
Featherwork by Maison Lemarié for Chanel Haute Couture spring 2014 © lejournalflou.com
 
“It is a mixture of different savoir-faire,” said Mme Dufat, using that French expression meaning what we might call in English a “skill set”.

Lesage samples for Chanel Haute Couture autumn 2014 © lejournalflou.com
Lesage samples for Chanel Haute Couture autumn 2014 © lejournalflou.com
 
She explained the featherwork that went into Karl Lagerfeld’s imaginative scenic view where the paysage was created from the mix of colours and textures that I could imagine from seeing the box of feathers in front of me. These are the details of Chanel’s Métiers d’Art delicate Mountain Landscape top and skirt: the pattern made from goose feathers, leather, woollen flowers, beads and crystal; on the sleeves, tie-dye sky-blue satin accordion pleats; and star-shaped flowers and forget-me-knots in blue leather with a bead at centre.

A Maison Lemarié feather sample © lejournalflou.com
A Maison Lemarié feather sample © lejournalflou.com
 
Total hours of handwork: 378.
 
Of course, the fashion point of these intricately worked designs is that they do not look heavy or weighed down by the decoration. It is just absorbed into the overall design.

Maison Lemarié  for Valentino Couture autumn 2014 © lejournalflou.com
Maison Lemarié for Valentino Couture autumn 2014 © lejournalflou.com
 
I liked the jaunty Tyrolean hats in Salzburg, with ostrich and chicken feathers set off by the Maison Michel black felt. But in my visit to Chanel’s Pantin workrooms, I realised that hats were not so easy to make, even if there seemed to be hundreds of them ready to go in typically Coco-pink checked tweed.

A drum of feathers in the Lemarié workshop
A drum of feathers in the Lemarié workshop
 
I watched milliner Shariff Hisaund making a Maison Michel felt hat — and he might have been a five-star chef, stretching the felt, dowsing it, stretching it again and popping it into a giant “oven” to cook into shape.

Maison Lemarié workshop © lejournalflou.com
Maison Lemarié workshop © lejournalflou.com
 
When Karl did his Paris-Edinburgh Métiers d’Art show in the ruins of a Scottish castle back in 2012, I made a visit to Barrie Knitwear, king of cashmere, which has to be made in Scotland, not France, because of the natural features in the river Tweed (which is the basis of the iconic Chanel jacket).

An array of Chanel camellia flowers at the Maison Lemarié workshop
An array of Chanel camellia flowers at the Maison Lemarié workshop
 
But at Pantin, there were still more specialists. I am sure that Montex will be super-busy completing orders for Karl’s Salzburg loafers — embroidered with white leather edelweiss, white chenille yarns and small glitter balls. They could be as much of a hit as Chanel’s decorated haute-couture sneakers.

Pearl-encrusted petals ready to be punched and pressed into Chanel’s signature flower, the camellia, by Maison Lemarié © lejournalflou.com
Pearl-encrusted petals ready to be punched and pressed into Chanel’s signature flower, the camellia, by Maison Lemarié © lejournalflou.com
 
Then there are the costume jewels from Maison Desrues. The choker, inspired by Austrian embroidery, made from enamelled molten glass and velvet ribbon around a filigree metal heart, appeared in Salzburg with one of the most striking looks in the collection: Lederhosen cut into saucy shorts worn with high hose and the edelweiss shoes.

Individual petals being pressed with a heated implement at Maison Lemarié © lejournalflou.com
Individual petals being pressed with a heated implement at Maison Lemarié © lejournalflou.com
 
I left Pantin with a feeling of elation that Chanel was not only keeping these Métiers d’Art alive, but they were in the hands of a new, young generation.

Chanel a/w ’14 hats stacked up for finishing
Chanel a/w ’14 hats stacked up for finishing
 
Somewhere up there, François Lesage must be lifting his head from embroidering for the angels and rejoicing that Chanel has kept his skills alive.

Milliner Shariff Hisaund of Maison Michel stretching a hat over a block © lejournalflou.com
Milliner Shariff Hisaund of Maison Michel stretching a hat over a block © lejournalflou.com

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