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Suzy Menkes

Vogue International Editor Suzy Menkes is the best-known fashion journalist in the world. After 25 years commenting on fashion for the International Herald Tribune (rebranded recently as The International New York Times), Suzy Menkes now writes exclusively for Vogue online, covering fashion worldwide.

Feet First

How art and science fell into step for Salvatore Ferragamo

23 Августа 2014

Caption Artwork depicting balance on display at the Equilibrium exhibition at the Salvatore Ferragamo Museum
Caption Artwork depicting balance on display at the Equilibrium exhibition at the Salvatore Ferragamo Museum

Two gilded bronze feet – one from ancient Rome, the other by Henri Matisse — vie for attention with monkey pads, a ballerina’s arched instep and the tiny toes of a toddler taking his first steps.

I took a crash course about the human foot and its function at Equilibrium, a fascinating exhibition at the Salvatore Ferragamo Museum in Florence.
 
Right foot in gilt bronze belonging to a Nike  (2nd Century BC)Archivio del Museo dei Fori Imperiali — Stefano Castellani; Henri Matisse, Etude de pied (c 1909) — Succession H. Matisse c/o Pictoright Amsterdam
Right foot in gilt bronze belonging to a Nike (2nd Century BC)Archivio del Museo dei Fori Imperiali — Stefano Castellani; Henri Matisse, Etude de pied (c 1909) — Succession H. Matisse c/o Pictoright Amsterdam
 
Given that I was hobbling with a bandaged and bloated instep after taking a tumble off my wedges in Capri at the Dolce & Gabbana couture show, I was particularly sensitive to the foot and its function.

But you don’t have to fall down a cliff to appreciate this erudite but edgy exhibition. I laughed at the sight of our predecessors, the primates, as hairy models plodding along in footprints found in Africa 3.6 million years ago.
 
The children’s Derby shoe, called Primi passi, which means ‘first steps’ in Italian, was created in light brown calfskin with a patented non-slip sole by Salvatore Ferragamo in 1946 for his eldest son Ferruccio Ferragamo Credit — Arrigo Coppitz
The children’s Derby shoe, called Primi passi, which means ‘first steps’ in Italian, was created in light brown calfskin with a patented non-slip sole by Salvatore Ferragamo in 1946 for his eldest son Ferruccio Ferragamo Credit — Arrigo Coppitz
 
I had a prick in my eyes when I saw the tiny calfskin shoes with non-slip soles which shoemaker Salvatore Ferragamo created in 1946 for his son Ferruccio, now president of the family business.
 
I also felt a lift of delight at figures swinging acrobatically in an empty space, like Alexander Calder’s mobiles and his circus inspirations. But I shivered at the sight and sound of the famous on film: the purposeful stride of John F Kennedy, the religious march of Mahatma Gandhi, and Adolf Hitler’s military goose-stepping.
 
Caption James Dean at a dance class with Katherine Dunham, New York, 1955 Credit — Dennis Stock/Magnum Photos
Caption James Dean at a dance class with Katherine Dunham, New York, 1955 Credit — Dennis Stock/Magnum Photos

Most of all, Stefania Ricci, the museum’s director and archivist, and art critic Sergio Risaliti, Equilibrium’s co-curators, should be applauded for the impressive art objects and references that they have brought together from museums around the world. They extend from an illustration of the journey from Dante’s The Divine Comedy, loaned from Florence’s Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, to Edgar Degas sculptures from the Musée d’Orsay in Paris.
 
Edgar Degas, bronze statue — RMN-Grand Palais (Musée d’Orsay) / Hervé Lewandowski
Edgar Degas, bronze statue — RMN-Grand Palais (Musée d’Orsay) / Hervé Lewandowski
 
Especially poignant is the section on dance, where the delicacy of bare-footed Degas dancers or a fifteenth-century Raphael-style pen-and-ink drawing show us feet in a state of grace.

But the soul and the sole of shoes is, of course, Salavatore himself.
 
Salvatore Ferragamo and his wife Wanda around the time of their wedding in the late Thirties
Salvatore Ferragamo and his wife Wanda around the time of their wedding in the late Thirties
 
“He spent his life studying and learning about the human anatomy to improve his understanding of feet,” explained Stefania Ricci, as she showed me the different lasts the designer had worked on to further his scientific study of the arch of the foot.
 
Development of a last in 11 heel heights, 2014 —: Arrigo Coppitz
Development of a last in 11 heel heights, 2014 —: Arrigo Coppitz
 
Toe shoe with sole featuring a tapered edge glued to the sides of the upper and reinforcing the toe; Arch reinforcement system for shoe soles. As a result of his research, Ferragamo invented the revolutionary steel shank, which supported the plantar arch, enabling the foot to move like an inverted pendulum. The shank, which he patented in 1929, was one of his most important inventions and is still used in the brand’s shoes.


With the intuitive understanding of an Italian who is surrounded by Renaissance architecture (where the premium arch takes the building’s weight), Ferragamo brought the same principle to shoes.

Marilyn Monroe, among other Hollywood stars, may have felt the benefit of Salvatore’s studies. But the volatile balance, especially in heels of different heights, was developed from scientific understanding into an art form.
 
Red patent-leather pump based on the shoe created by Salvatore Ferragamo in the Fifties for Marilyn Monroe; last created by Salvatore Ferragamo for Marilyn Monroe’s foot. The marks are evidence of the many different shoes designed for the Hollywood star —
Red patent-leather pump based on the shoe created by Salvatore Ferragamo in the Fifties for Marilyn Monroe; last created by Salvatore Ferragamo for Marilyn Monroe’s foot. The marks are evidence of the many different shoes designed for the Hollywood star —
 
The “shoemaker to the stars” understood that the entire weight of the body falls in a plumb line on the arch of the foot.

Looking at the fragility of Alberto Giacometti’s bronze figure of the Capsizing Man, I shared the artist’s impression of “the frailty of living beings, as if at any moment it took a formidable amount of energy for them to remain standing.”
 
Philippe Petit walking the wire between the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, New York, 1974 — Getty Images; La Funambule (1943), by Alberto Giacometti — Yoshiji Gallery
Philippe Petit walking the wire between the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, New York, 1974 — Getty Images; La Funambule (1943), by Alberto Giacometti — Yoshiji Gallery
 
A display of Ferragamo lasts and foot moulds
A display of Ferragamo lasts and foot moulds

In my previous post, I wrote about some of the absurdities of high-heeled fashion and asked why women were prepared to suffer to be “beautiful”.

The curators of the exhibition made me understand how difficult it is to create in footwear the “equilibrium” bestowed by nature — the muscles that move the skeleton and the neurons that control the anatomy.
 
Caption A modern dance performance by Martha Graham, 1943 — Getty Images
Caption A modern dance performance by Martha Graham, 1943 — Getty Images
 
But the scientific side of the exhibition is as light as a pair of fine leather court shoes. Those wanting to take the lesson further, can study the Equilibrium catalogue and its beautifully presented historical overview.
 
Antonio Canova’s dancers and their rhythms of grace (1799) — Possagno, Museo e Gipsoteca Antonio Canova
Antonio Canova’s dancers and their rhythms of grace (1799) — Possagno, Museo e Gipsoteca Antonio Canova
 
The fully illustrated book embraces the Neo-classical balance of Antonio Canova’s dancers and their “rhythms of grace”, the harsher visions of the distorted toes of American avant-garde dancer Merce Cunningham, and the implacably rigid carved amethyst Shoes for Departure (1991), by conceptual artist Marina Abramovic.

Merce Cunningham in Antic Meet, photographed by Robert Rauschenberg in 1958 —  Richard Rutledge. Art © Estate of Robert Rauschenberg
Merce Cunningham in Antic Meet, photographed by Robert Rauschenberg in 1958 —  Richard Rutledge. Art © Estate of Robert Rauschenberg
 
Shoes for Departure (1991), in amethyst by Marina Abramovic — Paris, Collection Enrico Navarra.
Shoes for Departure (1991), in amethyst by Marina Abramovic — Paris, Collection Enrico Navarra.
 
I hope this exhibition travels, because it is so much more meaningful than a mere display of footwear — just as Salvatore himself brought art, science and overall intelligence to his apparently humble craft.

Equilibrium is at the Salvatore Ferragamo museum, Florence (Ferragamo.com/museo), until April 12
Equilibrium is at the Salvatore Ferragamo museum, Florence (Ferragamo.com/museo), until April 12


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